In May 2016, the European Commission agreed with Facebook, Microsoft, Twitter and YouTube on a Code of Conduct on countering illegal hate speech online (incitement to hate or violence by race, religion, etc.).
In June 2017, Germany passed a Network Enforcement Act (NetzDG) to mitigate hate speech and disinformation on social networks. France adopted a similar Avia Law in 2020, while an Online Harms White Paper is discussed in the UK.
In May 2020, U.N. Secretary-General Antonio Guterres appealed for an all-out effort to end hate speech globally, as COVID-19 spurred a new wave of xenophobia and conspiracy theories.